Viscoelastic behaviour of synthesized liquid soaps
In a recently published paper, a rheological study of liquid soaps prepared from different mixture of surfactants as a function of surfactant type and concentration was performed. The curves of shear stress vs. shear rate and viscosity vs. shear rate were recorded at constant temperature, 294 ± 0.1 K. The surface activity properties were also studied. The results of the study showed that values of surface tension, γ, were in the range 31–40 mN m−1 and the critical micelle concentration (CMC), was of the order 10−4 mol L−1. The calculated maximum surface excess, Γmax, varied from 2.40 to 3.66 μmol m−2, while minimum area per molecule, Amin, varied from 41.1 (for amphoterics) to 81.4 Å2 (for nonionic surfactants). The standard free energy of micellization, −29.8 and −29.3 kJ mol−1 for anionic and amphoteric surfactants, respectively, were while values for nonionic surfactants varied between −31.8 and − 30.3 kJ mol−1. The free energy of adsorption, was the lowest for amphoteric surfactants (−37.9 kJ mol−1), followed by anionics (−40.4 kJ mol−1) and nonionics (−43.34 to −46.84 kJ mol−1), indicating that micellization process is spontaneous in the examined medium. The synthetized liquid soaps show pseudoplastic behavior and they achieved pipe flow. The results of this research indicate that flow behavior was affected significantly by the ionic charge of the surfactant and the ionic strength of the formulation, suggesting that the flow behavior could be changed by manipulating the choice of the surfactant and salinity. The pH value of all liquid soaps examined were weakly acidic, in the range of 5.0–6.4.